illness and their causes Bronchitics (Bronchiectasis)


Bronchitics (Bronchiectasis) is a destruction and widening (dilatation) of abnormally large airways. Bronchitics is not a single disease, can occur through various ways and is the result of several circumstances that the bronchial wall, either directly or indirectly, which disrupt the defense system. This situation is probably widespread, or might appear in one or two places.

In particular, bronchitics causes enlargement of the bronchi of medium size, but small-sized bronchi that are below it often forming scar tissue and narrowing. Bronchiectasis sometimes occurs in the larger bronchi, as occurs in allergic bronchopulmonary spyglasses (a condition caused by an immunological response against the fungus Aspell's).

Under normal circumstances, bronchial wall is made of several layers of thickness and composition vary in each part of the respiratory tract. Layer in (mucosa) and the area below it (submucosal) contains cells that protect the respiratory tract and lungs from harmful substances.

These cells consist of:
- Mucus-producing cells
- Cilia Ted cells, which has a vibrating hair to help sweep particles and mucus into the top or out of the respiratory tract
- The other cells that play a role in the body's immune and defense system, against organisms and hazardous substances other.

Respiratory structures formed by elastic fibers, muscle and cartilage layers (cartilage), which allows the variation of the diameter of the airways as needed. Blood vessels and lymphoid tissue to function as provider of food substances and defense systems for bronchial wall.

In bronchiectasis, the bronchial wall damage and chronic inflammation, which damaged cilia Ted cells and the formation of mucus increases. Normal bronchial wall tension was also missing.Areas exposed to a wide and loose and form a pouch that resembles a small balloon. Addition of mucus causes bacteria to breed, which often clog and trigger the accumulation of bronchial secretions of infected and then damage the bronchial wall.

The inflammation can extend to the small air pockets (alveolar) and causing bronchopneumonia, scarring and loss of function of the lung tissue. In severe cases, scarring and loss of lung blood vessels may injure the heart.

Inflammation and increase blood vessels in the bronchial wall can also cause coughing up blood. Blockage of the airways are damaged can cause low oxygen levels in the blood.


Bronchiectasis may be caused by:

Respiratory Infections
  • Measles
  • Pertussis
  • Infection with an antivirus
  • Bacterial infections such as Klebsiella, Staphylococcus or Pseudonyms Br> - Influenza
  • Tuberculosis
  • Fungal Infections
  • Micro plasma Infections

Bronchial blockage
  • Foreign body sucked
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • lung tumors
  • Obstruction by mucus

Inhalation Injury
  • Injuries due to smoke, toxic gases or particles
  • Inhaling latex particles the stomach and food

Genetic Condition
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Cilia duskiness, including Cartage syndrome
  • Lack of alpha-1-anti trip sin

Immunologic abnormalities

  • Immunoglobulin deficiency syndrome
  • white blood cell dysfunction
  • Lack Coleman
  • or autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis Hyperion,ulcerate colitis

Other circumstances
  • Abuse of drugs (egg heroin)
  • HIV Infection
  • Young's syndrome (obstructive azoospermia)
  • Mar fan's syndrome.


Symptoms can include:

  • chronic cough with a lot of foul-smelling sputum
  • coughing blood
  • cough gets worse if the patient lying on his side
  • shortness of breath which gets worse if people do activity
  • weight loss
  • tired
  • clubbing fingers (your fingers like percussion drums)
  • wheezing (wheezing / asthma)
  • bluish skin color
  • pale
  • bad breath.

On physical examination using a stethoscope, usually in the lower lung bronchi sound will be heard.

Inspection is usually done:
Chest X-rays
CT scan chest
Sputum culture
Calculate blood type
Examination of sweat or other examination of cystic fibrosis
Analysis of serum immunoglobulin
Serum precipitant (examination for antibodies to the fungus,Aspell's)
PD O test for TB infection.

The goal of treatment is to control the infection and the formation of phlegm, relieve blockage of the airways and prevent complications. Postural drainage are carried out regularly every day, is part of a treatment to remove phlegm. 

A respiratory therapist can teach you how to perform postural drainage and effective coughing.

To overcome the infection are often given antibiotics, Bron Ch dilators and expectorants. Appointment of the lung through surgery performed on patients who do not respond to administration of drugs or in patients who experience severe bleeding.

Measles and pertussis immunization in childhood help reduce the incidence of bronchiectasis. Regular influenza vaccine helps prevent damage to the bronchi by the flu virus. Pneumatic vaccine helps prevent serious complications from pneumonia . Taking antibiotics early during infection also prevents bronchiectasis or worsening of disease.

Treatment with immunoglobulin in immunoglobulin deficiency syndrome to prevent recurrent infections who have experienced complications. The use of proper anti-inflammatory (such as corticosteroids), particularly in patients with allergic spyglasses bronchopneumonia, can prevent damage to the bronchus that would lead to bronchiectasis.

Avoiding poisonous air, smoke (including cigarette smoke) and a dangerous powder (like powder or silica) also prevents or reduces the severity of the disease bronchiectasis.

The entry of foreign matter into the respiratory tract can be prevented by:
  • Pay attention to what you put into the mouths of children
  • Avoid excess doses of drugs and alcohol
  • Seek medical treatment for neurological symptoms ( such decreased consciousness) or gastrointestinal symptoms (such as regurgitation or coughing after eating).

Drops of mineral oil or drops to the mouth or nose should not be used at bedtime because it can get into the lungs. Bronchoscopy can use to find and treat bronchial obstruction before the onset of severe damage.


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